Five Weeks to a Social Library

Five Weeks to a Social Library is the first free, grassroots, completely online course devoted to teaching librarians about social software and how to use it in their libraries. It was developed to provide a free, comprehensive, and social online learning opportunity for librarians who do not otherwise have access to conferences or continuing education and who would benefit greatly from learning about social software. The course will be taught using a variety of social software tools so that the participants acquire experience using the tools while they are taking part in the class. It will make use of synchronous online communication, with one or two weekly Webcasts and many small group IM chat sessions made available to participants each week. By the end of the course, each student will develop a proposal for implementing a specific social software tool in their library. Five Weeks to a Social Library will take place between February 12 and March 17, 2007 and is limited to 40 participants (these participants have already been chosen). However, course content will be freely viewable by interested parties and all live Webcasts will be archived for later viewing. The course will cover the following topics:

  • Blogs
  • RSS
  • Wikis
  • Social Networking Software and SecondLife
  • Flickr
  • Social Bookmarking Software
  • Selling Social Software @ Your Library

http://www.sociallibraries.com/course/

List of social software

This is a list of notable social software: selected examples of social software products and services that facilitate a variety of forms of social human contact.  Wikipedia article

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_social_software#Social_bookmarking

Drupal

Drupal (pronounced /ˈdruːpəl/) is a free and open source modular framework and content management system (CMS) written in the programming language PHP. Drupal, like many modern CMSs, allows the system administrator to create and organize content, customize the presentation, automate administrative tasks, and manage site visitors and contributors. Although there is a sophisticated programming interface, most tasks can be accomplished with little or no programming. Drupal is sometimes described as a “web application framework,” as its capabilities extend from content management to enabling a wide range of services and transactions.

Lorcan’s overview of tagging

Four sources of metadata about things

 •  Categories: Featured , Knowledge organization and representation , Libraries – organization and services , Metadata , Social networking

I think it is useful to think of four sources of descriptive metadata in libraries. These are not mutually exclusive, and one of the interesting questions we have to address is how they will be mobilized effectively together.

I don’t have good names for these. How about: professional, contributed, programmatically promoted, and intentional?

Professional

The curatorial professions have made major investments in knowledge organization, through the development and application of cataloging rules, controlled vocabularies, authorities, gazetteers, and so on. One of our major challenges is releasing the value that has been created through those approaches in web environments. There is much to think about here, and many folks are thinking about it. Currently, these approaches do not tend to work well across silos, they are not made available as web resources themselves so that they can be part of the connected fabric of the web, they only work with the other approaches I mention in particular projects or services, their ‘relating’ power is underused, and higher level services based on data mining or statistical analysis are limited. Now, these types of issues are being addressed, but are some way from routine systemwide application. I believe that these approaches will continue, within a reconfigured system, and we need to make that data work harder. My personal view is that the curatorial professions need to invest more in the shared production of resources which identify and describe authors, subjects, places, time periods, and works.

Contributed

A major phenomenon of recent years has been the emergence of many sites which invite, aggregate and mine data contributed by users, and mobilize that data to rank, recommend and relate resources. These include, for example, Flickr, LibraryThing, and Connotea. These services have a different focus, and create real value in the way that they organize resources. They also have value in that they reveal relations between people. Libraries have begun to experiment with these approaches, but individual libraries may not have the scale to iron out local or personal idiosyncrasy or emphasis. This is another area which lends itself to shared attention. There are real advantages to be gained. So, for example, as we digitize photographic and other community collections, we will want to mobilize knowledge about those collections that does not exist within the library. Or, if you think about a service like Worldcat Identities, at some stage we will want to allow those ‘identities’ themselves to comment, augment, amend. What this means is that we will have to get rather more sophisticated about managing assertions about resources from different sources.

Programmatically promoted

We are handling more digital materials, where it is possible to programmatically identify and promote metadata from resources themselves or groups of resources. We will also do more to mine collections, including collections of metadata, to discern pattern and relations. We are increasingly familiar with clustering, entity identification, automatic classification and other approaches. Look at the home page for books that Google is creating to see a resource created from mining Scholar, Google Book Search, and big Google to deliver a range of related materials.

Intentional

I have used this term to refer to the data that we are collecting about use and usage. Pagerank is based on aggregate linking choices. Amazon recommendations are based on aggregate purchase choices. We use holdings data in ranking algorithms, which aggregates selection choices of libraries. This type of data has emerged as a central factor in the major web presences as they seek to provide useful paths through massive amounts of data.

To repeat, these approaches are not mutually exclusive and will increasingly be deployed alongside each other. For example, authority lists may support programmatic identification of personal or place names in large text resources. The shared interests revealed in social networking applications may be abstracted into a form of intentional data to drive recommendations or ‘related work’ services. Patterns of association and interaction will develop between tags and subject headings. And so on.

Much of our discussion pits these approaches against each other. This seems like the wrong approach. Clearly there will always be choices about where one invests effort, especially as the network continues to reconfigure what we do, but the starting point should be how we create better services and what approaches support that, and not a ‘techeological’ position around one or other approach which confuses ideology and technology.

Related entries:

Lorcan’s overview of libraries

The network reconfigures the library systems environment

Categories: Featured , Learning and research – distributed environments , Libraries – systems and technologies , Libraries – distributed environments , Libraries – organization and services , User experience

One of the main issues facing libraries as they work to create richer user services is the complexity of their systems environment. Consider these pictures which I have been using in presentations for a while now.libsystemsenv.png

Reductively, we can think of three classes of systems – (1) the classic ILS focused on ‘bought’ materials, (2) the emerging systems framework around licensed collections, and (3) potentially several repository systems for ‘digital’ resources. Of course, there are other pieces but I will focus on these.

In each case what we see is a backend apparatus for managing collections, each with its own workflow, systems and organizational support. And each with its own – different – front-end presentation and discovery mechanisms. What this means is that the front-end presentation mirrors the organizational development over time of the library backend systems, rather than the expectations or behaviors of the users.

You have the catalog here, maybe several options for licensed resources (a-to-z, metasearch, web pages of databases, and so on) over there, and potentially several repository interfaces (local digitized materials, institutional repository) somewhere else.

This is one reason that people have difficulties with the library website. Effectively, it is a layer stretched over a set of systems and services which were not designed as a unit. Indeed, in some cases, they were not originally designed to work on the web at all. So what do we have?

ILS: a management system for inventory control of the ‘bought’ collection (books, DVDs, etc). The catalog is bolted onto this and gives a view onto this part of the collection. In effect, in virtue of its integration with inventory management, the catalog provides discovery (what is in the collection), location (where those things are) and request (get me those things) in a tightly integrated way. The ILS and catalog may be part of a wider apparatus of provision, and may have mechanisms for interfacing to resource sharing systems of one sort or another. The management side may have interfaces to a variety of other systems for sharing and communicating data: procurement, finance, student records. And there will be a flow of data into the system, from jobbers, as part of a shared cataloging environment, and so on.

Licensed: This has been an area of rapid recent development as the journal literature moved to electronic form. On the backend we now see a variety of approaches, and the frontend can be very confusing with lists of databases and journals presented in various ways, often in uncertain relation to the catalog (where do I look for something?). We are now seeing the emergence here of an agreed set of systems around knowledge-base, ERM, resolution and metasearch, and there is rapidly developing vendor support. This is the range of approaches for which Serials Solutions has proposed the ERAMS name. These systems require the management of new kinds of data, and mechanisms are being put in place, certainly not yet optimal, for the creation, propagation and sharing of this data. With journals data, discovery, location and request are not so tightly coupled as they were with the catalog. Discovery has happened in one set of tools (A&I databases), but then the appropriate title may have to be located in another tool (the catalog for example) and, if not available locally, requested through yet another system. The importance of the resolver, and the enabling OpenURL, has been to tie some of these things together and remove some of the human labor of making connections between these systems. And metasearch has been seen as a way of reducing human labor by providing a unified discovery experience over disparate databases. However, this whole apparatus is still not as as well-seamed as it needs to be, and users and managers still do more work than they should to make it all work.

Repository: Libraries are increasingly managing digital materials locally and supporting repository frameworks for those. This includes digitized special collections, research and learning materials in institutional repositories, web archives, and so on. There are a variety of repository solutions available, some open source. Typically, the contents of the repository backend may be available to repository front-ends on a per-repository basis. Here, discovery (what is there), location (where is it) and request and delivery are typically tightly integrated. Repositories may also have interfaces for harvesting or remote query. On the management side, metadata creation and material preparation may still be labor-intensive.

OK, so here are some general observations about this environment:

  • There is still a major focus – in terms of attention, organizational structures, and resource allocation – on the systems and processes around the ILS and the bought collection. In academic libraries, we will surely see some of this move towards the systems and processes around the licensed collections given the rising relative importance of this part of the collection. The repository strand of activity, associated with emerging digital library activities, may, in some cases, be supported from grant or other special resources. It will need to become more routine.
  • The fragmentation of this systems activity, the multiple vendor sources, the different workflows and data management processes, and the absence of agreed simple links between things mean that the overall cost of management is high.
  • There is also another cost: diminished impact and lost opportunity. The awkward disjointedness described above also means that it is difficult to mobilize the consolidated library resource into other environments, course management or social networking systems for example. It is difficult to flexibly put what is wanted where it is wanted.

  • There has been much discussion of library interoperability, but it has tended to be about how to tie together these individual pieces, or about tying pieces to other environments (how do I get my repository harvested for example). There has been less focus on how you might abstract the full library experience for consumption by other applications – a campus portal for example.

This in turn means several things.

  • We will see more hosted and shared solutions emerge, which offer to reduce local cost of ownership. And, of course, we are seeing vendors consider more integration between products. In particular it is interesting seeing the concentration on support for the licensed e-resources emerge strongly, as well as discussion about integrated discovery environments.
  • Over time, we can expect to see some more reconfiguration in a network environment. Shared cataloging and externalizing the journal literature have been two significant reconfigurations in the past. The pace of current developments suggest that we may be ready for other ways of collaboratively sourcing shared operations. For example, does it make sense for there to be library by library solutions for preservation, social networking, disclosure to search and social networking engines, and so on.

The next picture tries to capture an important direction that has emerged in the last year or so.

environments.png

For many of the reasons identified above, we are seeing a growing interest in separating the discovery and presentation front end from the management backend across this range of systems. Why? Well, because it is becoming clearer as I suggested in my opening that legacy system boundaries do not effectively map user preferences. And because fragmentation adds to effort and accordingly diminishes impact.

What about the discovery side? So, we saw metasearch, a partial response to fragmentation of A&I databases. We are now seeing a new generation of products from the ‘ILS vendors’ which look at unifying access to the library collection: Encore, Primo, Enterprise Portal Solution. However, discovery has also moved to the network level. So, folks discover resources in Amazon, Google, Google Scholar. And OCLC is working to create discovery experiences which connect local and network through Worldcat Local, Worldcat.org and Open Worldcat.

And on the management side? Here the variety of workflows and systems adds cost, as resources are managed on a per-format basis. We can expect to see simplification and rationalization in coming years as libraries cannot sustain expensive diversity of management systems. The National Library of Australia’s discussion of a ‘single business’ systems environment, or Ex Libris’s discussion of Uniform Resource Management are relevant here. It is likely that there will be a growing investment in collaboratively sourced solutions, as libraries seek to share the costs of development and deployment.

As discovery peels off, then the issue of connecting discovery environments back to resources themselves becomes very important. It is interesting to look at Google Scholar in this regard, as different approaches are required for the three categories identified above. It has worked with OCLC and other union catalogs to connect users through to catalogs and the ILS; it has worked with resolver data to connect users through to licensed materials; and it has crawled repositories and links directly to digital content.

Given this great divide, several issues become very important:

  • Routing, resolution and registries become critical, as one wants to enable users to move easily from a variety of discovery environments to resources they are authorized to use. We need a richer apparatus to support this. (I have discussed the role of registries elsewhere.)
  • Libraries have thought about discovery. There is now a switch of emphasis to disclosure: libraries need to think about how their resources are best represented in discovery environments which they don’t manage. (I have also discussed disclosure in more detail elsewhere in these pages.)
  • And again, how we present library services for consumption by other environments becomes an issue. For example, we are lacking an ILS Service Layer, an agreed way of presenting the functionality of the ILS so that it can be placed, say, in another discovery environment (shelf status, place a hold, etc).
  • Better discovery puts more pressure on delivery, whether from a local collection, throughout a consortium, or in broader resource sharing or purchase options. Streamlining the logistics of delivery and providing transparency on status at any stage for the user (as they can do with UPS or Amazon) become more important.

radiant2.png

And finally ….

We are used to thinking about better integration of library services. But that is a means, not an end. The end is the enhancement of research, learning and personal development. I discussed above how we want resources to be represented in various discovery environments. Increasingly, we want to represent resources in a variety of other workflows. These might be the personal digital environments that we are creating around RSS aggregators, toolbars and so on. Or the prefabricated institutional environments such as the course management system or the campus portal. Or emerging service composition environments like Facebook or iGoogle. As well as in network level discovery environments like Google or Amazon that are so much a part of people’s behaviors.

Libraries need to focus more attention on reconfiguring library services for network environments. This is the main reason for streamlining the backend management systems environment. It does not make sense to spend so much time on non-value creating effort.

Related entries:

Semantic Web Conference 2007

Table of contents for The Semantic Web : research and applications : 4th European Semantic Web Conference, ESWC 2007, Innsbruck, Austria, June 3-7, 2007 : proceedings / Enrico Franconi, Michael Kifer, Wolfgang May (eds.).

Bibliographic record and links to related information available from the Library of Congress catalog
Note: Electronic data is machine generated. May be incomplete or contain other coding.


Counter

[nvited Talks
Emerging Sciences of the Internet: Some New Opportunities
(Extended  Abstract)  ..  .                                            1.... .. <  .....  . .  . -. . »  .
Ron Brachman
Design Abstractions for Innovative Web Applications: The Case of the
SOtA Augmented with Semantics    ..............                      4
Ceri, Marco Brambilla, and Emanuele Della Valle
 Lixto Systems Applications in Business Intelligence and Semantic
t"' i-                    ...........                                 16
Robert Baumgartner, Oliver FrSlich, and Georg Gottlob
WaTli's to Develop Human-Level Web Intelligence: A Brain Informatics
Perspective. "  t..............                                       27
Wing Zhorng est; Papers
Empowering Software Maintainers with Semantic Web Technologies ...    37
Rene Witte, Yonggang Zhang, and Jiirgen Rilling
Minimal Deductive Systems for RDF   ...    .......                    53
Sergio Muidoz, Jorge Perez, and Claudio Gutierrez
Senmantic .Web Services
Web Service Contracting: Specification and Reasoning with SCIFF ...   68
Marco Alberti, Federico Chesani, Marco Gavanelli, Evelina Lamma,
Paola .Melo, Marco Morntali and Paolo Torroni
Dynamic Service Discovery Through Meta-interactions with Service
P roviders  ...    .  ... .. . .    ........ ...... ..... ... .. ...  84
onmaTs Vitvar, Macie% Zaremba, and Matthew Moran
Twoi-Phase Wkeb Service Discovery Based on Rich Functional
Descritionis . wa   9... .           ..     .. ... . .  .   ..... .  99
AMichaed Stol berg, Uwe Keller, Holger Lausen, and Stijn Heymans
A Reasioniig Framework for Rule-Based WSML    .    .                 1 . 14
Stephar. Grim?, Uwe Keller, Holger Lausen, and Gbor Nagypd
Ontology Learning, Inference and Mapping I
GenTax: A Generic Methodology for Deriving OWL and RDF-S
Ontologies from Hierarchical Classifications, Thesauri, and Inconsistent
Taxonom ies  . .  ..  ..  .... ... . .  .  .. ..... ... ..          129
Martin Hepp and Jos de Brunijn
SPARQLeR: Extended Sparqi for Semantic Association Discovery        145
Krys J. Kochut and Macicj Janik
Simple Algorithms for Predicate Suggestions Using Similarity and
Co-occurr ence  .  .... .. .. ... .  . .. .......           . ...   1 60
Eyal Oren, Sebastian Gerke, and Stefan Decker
Learning Disjointness  ....                      .  ... .    .  ..  175
Johanna V6lker, Denny Vrande'id, York Sure, and Andreas Hotho
Case Studies
Developing Ontologies for Collaborative Engineering in Mechatronics .,  90
Violeta Damjanovic, Wernher Behrendt, Manuela PlVofnig, and
Merlin Holzapfel
Media, Politics and the Semantic Webt ......                        205
lWouter van Atteveldt, Stefan Schlobach, and Frank van Harmelen
SEEMP: An Semantic Interoperability Infrastructure for e-Government
Services in the Employment Sector ...   ... . ....                  220
E. Della Valle, D. Cerizza, I Celino, J. Estublier, G. Vega,
M. Kerrigan, J. Rarn/rez, B. Villazon, P. Guarrera, G. Zhao, and
G. Monteleone
Combining RDF Vocabularies for Expert Finding               ....    235
Boanerqes Aleman-Meza, Uldis Boiars, Harold Boley,
John G. Breslin, Malgorzata MochoL Lyndon JB N ixon,
Axel Polleres, and Anna V. Zhdanova
Social Semantic Web
Extracting Social Networks Among Various Entities on the W,eb ... . . 25
Yin qZi Jin, Yutaka Matsuo, and Mitsuru Ishizuka
Towards Semantic Social Networks  ......  ...................       267
Jason J. Jung and J6errne Euzenat
Knowledge Sharing on the Semantic Web ....                          281
Nicholas J. Kings, Caroline Gale. and John Davies
Ontologies: Requirements and Analysis
Real- World Reasoning with OWL .    .................               296
Ti7no Weithiiner, Thorsten Liebig, Marko Luther, Sebastian B6hm,
riredrih an ifHenke and Olaf Noppens
"fEow to Design Better Ontology Metrics.     .    . ..     . .      311
Denmry Vandecic and York Sure
Measuring Inconsistencies in Ontologies ...... .......             326
Xi ir sP, V/olker Haarstev, and Nematollaah Shiri
Personalization I
u-u mjrl:, An Advanced Semantic Search and Browse Facility  . ... ..  .  341
A listair Duke Tim Glover, and John Davies
i. eir- Centric Faceted Search for Semantic Portals ...  .  ..356
eQ. ma Sominmen, Kim Viljanen, and Eero Hyv3nen
, Approach for Identificaation of User's Intentions During the
 ,,:i ation in Sematntic Websites .. .  . .. ..  . . ... ... . .   371
Rafael Liberato Roberto and S'rgio Roberto P. da Silva
Foundations of the Semantic Web
A Novel CoiombMation of Answer Set Programming with Description
Sog-ics for the Semantic Web       ..... ...       .    .......8. 384
ornas Lu ,ukasiewicz
Algorithns for Paraconsistent R,easoning with OWL      . . .....    399
hie M.a Pascal Hitzter, and Zuoquan Lin
"N',-uue Knowledge Bases for Matchmaking in P2P E-Marketplaces . ....  414
Azzurra, Ragone, Umberto Straccia, Tommaso Di Noia,
Eu'?rico Di Sciascio, and Francesco M. Donini
.Yibol Grounding for the Semantic Web       ..                     429
Atn,ne AL Cregan
Natural Languages and Ontologies
O tology-Driven Semantic Ranking for Natural Language
Disc,mbiguat+ion : the OntoNL Framework .   ......            ..    443
A n.astasia Karanastasi and Stavros Christodoulakis
Web An i.otations for Humans and Machines ...... -.      . .  .      58
No,ber! F. iFuchs and Rolf Schwitter
PANTO: A Portable Natural Language Interface to Ontologies ........  473
Chong Wang, Miao Xiong, Qi Zhou. and Yong Yu
Mining the Web Through Verbs: A Case Study .   ..............      488
Peyman Sazedj and H. Sofia Pinto
Applications
What Have Innsbruck and Leipzig in Common? Extracting Semantics
from  W iki Content  . . .  .   ...... ..... . .  .  .  .  .  .. . ..  .  .  503
S5ren Auer and Jens Lehmrann
SALT-- Semantically Annotated LATp for Scientific Publications    518
Tudor Groza, Siegfried Handschuh, Knud .Mi1er, and Stefan Decker
Annotating Relationships Between Multiple Mixed-Media Digital
Objects by Extending Annotea  ...    .....                   ....  533
Ronald Schroeter, Jane IHunter, and Andrew Newman
Describing Ontology Applications . ......     .          . . . . . .  549
Thomas Albertsen and Eva Blomqvist
Querying and Web Data Models
The SPARQL Query Graph Model for Query Optimization . .. ....      564
Olaf Hartig and Ralf Heese
A Unified Approach to Retrieving Web Documents and Semantic Web
D ata  ..,   .   . .  .   ..   ..   ...  ....  .... .   ..   . ..  .  .  .   . .  579
Trivikram Immaneni and Krishnaprasad Thirunaraoyan
Distributed Knowledge Representation on the Social Semantic Desktop:
Named Graphs. Views and Roles in NRL     .i...   .     .594
Michael Sintek, Ludger van Elst, Simon Scerri, and
Siegfried Handschuh
Semantic Process Retrieval with iSPARQL . ......                   609
Christoph -Kiefer, Abraham Bernstein. Hong Joo Lee,
Mark Klein, and Markus Stocker
Ontology Learning, Inference and Mapping II
Integrating Folksonomies with the Semantic Web                     624
Lucia Specia and Enrico Motta
IdentityRank: Named Entity Disambiguation in the Context of the
NEW  S  Project  . ...  .   ... .   ....   .   ..........          640
Norberto Ferndndez, Jose M. Blazquez, Luis Sinchez. and
Ansgar Bernardi
A Stuidy  i -Empirical and Casuisti.c Analysis of Ontology Mapping
Results                                        ......              655
Acquistion of OWL DL Axioms from Lexical Resources ...     .       670
Joharnna Vijlker, Pascal Hitzler, and Philipp Cimiano
Personalization II
1on Enriching Ajax with Semantics: The Web Personalization Use
S1 ,s                               .............. ...            686
KaysUhe Schm,idt, Ljijana Stojanovic, Nenad Stojanovic, and
Susan Thownas
SSemrnantic VWeb Service Oriented Framework for Adaptive Learning
Environn   en-ts  O .   .....  ..-o . ....  .......e-....... .. .. -701
Stian DI etze Alessio Gugliotta. and John Domingue
S mantic Co(mposition of Lecture Subparts for a Personalized
C-  i arr  ng  .  ..  .... .    ..   . .7 . .  . ... ... ..       716
Naouel Kar>am, Serge Linckels, and Christoph Meinel
Sy stem  Descriptions
aravel;ia: Serantic Content Management with Automatic Information
ih gration anr Categorization                                      729
David Awuilltier and Frhard Rahm
The NExT System: Towards True Dynamic Adaptations of Semantic
b Service Compositions        .....    .........                   739
Abranarn Bernstemn, and Michael Ddnzer
"WSMO Studio - A Semantic Web Services Modelling Environment for
W SMO  ... ..                        .......,49
1Marn D-imitrov, Alex Simov, Vassil Momatchev, and
Mihail Konstantinov
A  Anotation Tool for Semantic Documents . . .        ......       759
Henrikc Eriksson
'WHi Systern Description: A Case Study in Information Retrieval,
Srence. and Visualization in the Semantic Web  ..  .             769
s email Fahmi, Junte Zh,ang, HenF: Ellermaonn and Gosse Bounma
Semantic Turkey: A Semantic Bookmarking Tool.    .... ...779.        - 7
Donato Griesi, Maria Teresa Pazienza, and Arrnando Stellato
The Web Service Modeling Toolkit - An Integrated Development
Environment for Semantic Web Services .. ....        .789
Mick Kerrigan, Adrian Mocan, Martin Tanler, and Dieter Fersel
Understanding Large Volumes of Interconnected Individuals by Visual
Exploration  ..  . . ....   .. .  . .    . . .  .          ..  .      99
Olaf Noppens and Thorsten Liebig
System Description: An Orienteering Strategy to Browse
Semantically-Enhanced Educational Wiki Pages   .             ..     809
Luciano T.E. Pansanato and Renata P.M. Fortes
Efficient Content Creation on the Semantic Web Using Metadata
Schemas with Domain Ontology                                        819

Natural Language Bibliography

Handbook of natural language processing / edited by Robert Dale, Hermann Moisl, Harold Somers.
New York : Marcel Dekker, 2000.
xviii, 943 p. : ill. ; 26 cm.
OCLC: 43977728
Sys.: 002871031
 

Description
Location Vesic Library | Reference | QA76.9.N38 H363 2000
Franz, Alexander, 1966-
Title Automatic ambiguity resolution in natural language processing : an empirical approach / Alexander Franz.
Published Berlin ; New York : Springer, c1996.
   
Location/Request Library Service Center:
| 001.64 L471, v. 1171 LSC

  Date : 03/08/2008

     When searching the Duke Library Catalog, you emailed a set of records.
     ----------------------------------------------------------------------
     Global information:

     __________________

     Author               Chow, Tai L.

     Title                Gravity, black holes, and the very early universe : an
                          introduction to general relativity and cosmology / Tai
                          L. Chow.

     Published            New York : Springer, 2008.

     Location/Request     Vesic Library | Stacks | QC178 .C29 2008

     Description          xv, 280 p. : ill. ; 25 cm.

     Contents             Basic ideas of general relativity -- Curvilinear
                          coordinates and general tensors -- Einstein's law of
                          gravitation -- The Schwarzschild solution --
                          Experimental tests of Einstein's theory -- The physics
                          of black holes -- Introduction to cosmology -- Big bang
                          models -- Particles, forces, and unification of forces
                          -- The inflationary universe -- The physics of the very
                          early universe -- Classical mechanics -- The special
                          theory of relativity.

     Notes                Includes bibliographical references and index.

     ISBN                 9780387736297

     ISBN                 0387736298

     ISBN                 9780387736310 (e-ISBN)

     ISBN                 038773631X (e-ISBN)

     OCLC Number          166358163

     Subject              Gravitation.

     Subject              General relativity (Physics)

     Subject              Black holes (Astronomy)

     Subject              Quantum field theory.

     Subject              Cosmology.

     System Number        003938235

     __________________

     Author               Halpern, Paul, 1961-

     Title                Brave new universe : illuminating the darkest secrets
                          of the cosmos / Paul Halpern and Paul Wesson.

     Published            Washington, D.C. : Joseph Henry Press, c2006.

     Electronic Resource  Table of contents:
                          http://www.loc.gov/catdir/toc/ecip068/2006004464.html

     Location/Request     Perkins/Bostock Library | Stacks | QB981 .H248 2006

     Description          viii, 264 p., [8] p. of plates : ill. ; 24 cm.

     Contents             To see the world in a grain of sand: what we can
                          observe from Earth -- Infinity in the palm of your
                          hand: Einstein's far-reaching vision -- Eternity in an
                          hour: the accelerating universe -- Darkness apparent:
                          the hidden stuff of the cosmos -- Ever-changing moods:
                          did nature's constants evolve? -- Escape clause:
                          circumventing the Big Bang singularity -- What is
                          real?

     Notes                Includes bibliographical references (p. 245-248) and
                          index.

     ISBN                 0309101379 (hardcover : alk. paper)

     ISBN                 0309658233 (PDFs : alk. paper)

     ISBN                 9780309658232 (PDFs : alk. paper)

     ISBN                 9780309101370

     OCLC Number          64335708

     Subject              Cosmology.

     Authors              Wesson, Paul S.

     System Number        003808212

     __________________

     Title                Current issues in cosmology / edited by Jean-Claude
                          Pecker and Jayant Narlikar.

     Published            Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2006.

     Electronic Resource  Publisher description:
                          http://www.loc.gov/catdir/enhancements/fy0665/200629708
                          0-d.html

     Electronic Resource  Table of contents only:
                          http://www.loc.gov/catdir/enhancements/fy0665/200629708
                          0-t.html

     Location/Request     Vesic Library | Stacks | QB980 .C875 2006

     Description          x, 267 p. : ill. ; 26 cm.

     Notes                Includes bibliographical references and index.

     ISBN                 0521858984 (hbk.)

     ISBN                 9780521858984 (hbk.)

     OCLC Number          63186221

     Subject              Cosmology -- Congresses.

     Authors              Pecker, Jean Claude.

     Authors              Narlikar, Jayant Vishnu, 1938-

     System Number        003861283

     __________________

     Author               Primack, J. R. (Joel R.)

     Title                The view from the center of the universe : discovering
                          our extraordinary place in the cosmos / Joel R. Primack
                          and Nancy Ellen Abrams.

     Published            New York : Riverhead Books, 2006.

     Location/Request     Perkins/Bostock Library | Stacks | QB981 .P85 2006

     Description          386 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.

     Contents             pt. 1. Cosmological revolutions: Wrapping your mind
                          around the universe ; From the flat Earth to the
                          heavenly spheres ; From the center of the universe to
                          no place special -- pt. 2. The new scientific picture
                          of the universe: What is the universe made of? : the
                          cosmic density pyramid ; What is the center of the
                          universe? : the cosmic spheres of time ; What size is
                          the universe? : the cosmic uroboros ; Where do we come
                          from? : the cosmic Las Vegas ; Are we alone? :

                          the possibility of alien wisdom -- pt. 3. The
                          meaningful universe: Think cosmically, act globally ;
                          Taking our extraordinary place in the cosmos.

     Cover title          Discovering our extraordinary place in the cosmos

     Notes                Includes bibliographical references and index.

     ISBN                 1594489149 (acid-free paper)

     OCLC Number          62282388

     Subject              Cosmology -- History.

     Subject              Physics -- Philosophy.

     Authors              Abrams, Nancy Ellen, 1949-

     System Number        003779042

     Sincerely,

     Duke University Libraries Author               European Semantic Web Conference (4th : 2007 :
                          Innsbruck, Austria)

     Title                The Semantic Web : research and applications : 4th
                          European Semantic Web Conference, ESWC 2007, Innsbruck,
                          Austria, June 3-7, 2007 : proceedings / Enrico
                          Franconi, Michael Kifer, Wolfgang May (eds.).

     Published            Berlin ; New York : Springer, c2007.

     Electronic Resource  http://www.springerlink.com/openurl.asp?genre=issue&iss
                          n=0302-9743&volume=4519 [ Restricted to Springer LINK
                          subscribers ]

     Electronic Resource  Table of contents only:
                          http://www.loc.gov/catdir/toc/fy0715/2007927308.html

     Location/Request     Library Service Center | 001.64 L471, v. 4519 LSC

     Description          xviii, 830 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.

     Series               Lecture notes in computer science, ISSN 0302-9743 ;
                          4519

     Contents             Invited talks -- Best papers -- Semantic Web services
                          -- Ontology learning, inference and mapping -- Case
                          studies -- Social Semantic Web -- Ontologies :
                          requirements and analysis -- Personalization --
                          Foundations of the Semantic Web -- Natural languages
                          and ontologies -- Applications -- Querying and Web data
                          models -- System descriptions.

     Variant title        4th European Semantic Web Conference

     Variant title        Fourth European Semantic Web Conference

     Variant title        European Semantic Web Conference

     Variant title        ESWC 2007

     Notes                Also available via the World Wide Web.

     Notes                Includes bibliographical references and index.

     ISBN                 9783540726661 (softcover : alk. paper)

     ISBN                 3540726667 (softcover : alk. paper)

     OCLC Number          137334565

     Subject              Semantic Web -- Congresses.

     Subject              Semantic networks (Information theory) -- Congresses.

     Subject              Ontologies (Information retrieval) -- Congresses.

     Authors              Franconi, Enrico.

     Authors              Kifer, M. (Michael), 1954-

     Authors              May, Wolfgang, 1968-